Explain chargaff rule ?? Explain restriction modification?? Northern blotting?? My today paper of BT301 Total Q 26 (40 marks) 20 MCQS 4 Short Q and 2 long Q Short Q: 1. the device could have reached Egypt, which was under Assyrian rule in 680 BC. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies a monochromator can be used to further decrease the spread of wavelengths in the X-ray tensity Wavelength ( ) 0. Jul 15, 2018 - Explore benjaminwillien's board "Biology test" on Pinterest. This pattern is found in both strands of the DNA. Which of the following base pairing rule is true: a) Adenine pairs with Guanine and Thymine pairs with Cytosine. Use your base 3 points pairing information to calculate how man hydrogen bonds in apiece of DNA that has 600 nucleotide, 50 % of which are A=T* O 1200 O 1500 O 900 O 600 Which of the following is a polymer of glucose linked with protein that make theexoskeleton 3 points of some. A presentation on DNA -the code of life. 1 2-ounce cheesy biscuit. Economics MCQ Economics Strong rule-of-law countries grow more rapidly than weak rule-of-law countries. DNA and RNA are nucleic acids. com/ask/question/video-lectures-for-iit-jee 2018-04-10 https://www. Over the years after Mendel, the nature of the genetic material was investigated, resulting in the realisation that DNA is the genetic material in majority of organisms. Chargaff's rule (the amount of adenine in DNA equals the amount of thymine, and so forth) was the key to understanding _____. Which of the following statements is not true according to chargaff's rule a. Frederick Griffith was a British bacteriologist (a scientist who studies bacteria), who lived from 1879 to 1941. chapter 16 ap biology Flashcards. According to Chargaff's rule, the number of purines in a given DNA is always equal to the number of pyrimidines. A and T, and G and C are therefore complementary base pairs. you must read these latest bt301 midterm exam past papers. o 1950 Erwin Chargaff [ A] always bonds with[ T] and [ C] bonds with [G] o 1962 : James Watson and Francis Crick discovered the DNA model was a double helix o Adenine and thymine are complementary. However, you should seek help if you find you cannot answer a problem. Considering the Chargaff’s rule it can be concluded that: a. According to Chargaff's rule, Concentration of adenine=concentration of thymine. txt) or view presentation slides online. Nagging Q Forum: Any Medical MCQ from any Medical Exam (Please post only one MCQ in a single thread) UPDATE: This forum is your first stop in RxPG forums if you want to ask a MCQ or exam question in any subject or of any exam. If you are having trouble with Chemistry, Organic, Physics, Calculus, or Statistics, we got your back! Our videos will help you understand concepts, solve your homework, and do great on your exams. e A = T (120) and G = C (120), therefore, the total no. Diffen › Science › Biology › Microbiology. It is a double stranded linear DNA d. Multiple Choice Questions MCQs Based on Chargaff's rule, Guanine binds to Cytosine via three hydrogen bonds. https://www. The correct order of organisation of genetic material from largest to smallest is as follows:Genome, chromosome, gene, nucleotide. MCQ-Molecular Biology and Genetics. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic acid (RNA) are the two types. Biochemistry Mcqs for preparation. What are Chargaff's rules? Nucleic Acids: Nucleic acids are large biopolymers that are made up of repeating monomers called nucleotides. Chargaff's rule (In Hindi) Lesson 25 of 61 • 20 upvotes • 10:38 mins. A and T, and G and C are therefore complementary base pairs. When DNA is double stranded the amount of adenine is always equal to the amount of thymine, and the. (A) Chargaffs rules (B) Hershey-Chase experiment (C) A very MacLeod œ McCarty experiment (D) Nirenberg and Khorana‘s codon assignments. Griffith's findings were followed by research in the late 1930s and early 40s that isolated DNA as the material that communicated this genetic information. Such a DNA is called: a. NEET Biology Chapter Wise Mock Test - Solved Paper 2015 1. How did Watson and Crick’s model explain the basis for Chargaff’s rules? Because each nitrogenous base is paired with its complement, the amount of A must equal the amount of T and the amount of G must equal the amount of C. BIOLOGY I – Chapter 16: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance (DNA) The Levels of Structure and Function of the Genome Evelyn I. Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs. This is called Chargaff's rule of complementary base pairing. Genetics with answers Q1) Choose the best answer for Genetics with answers Q1) Choose the best answer for the following questions: B Complete DNA replication C DNA not damage or broken D All of the above 12 Those cancers that derived from ectoderm or endoderm of epithelial cell are called A. First Chargaff's rule (or first parity rule) holds that in double-stranded DNA molecule observed percentage base pair equality: %A = %T and %G = %C. An extensive description of the original order of the collection was written in 1977 by Pnina Abir-Am for Survey of Sources for the History of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. bt301 midterm past papers 2018 will help you good understand and how to attemp midterm exam in VU. Bacteriophages are among the most common biological entities on Earth. 3 Pyrimidines. AC-NUC - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (. Watson and Crick later solved the structure of DNA and nitrogen base pairings. conjugation 2. in soil, water, air, inside our bodies and. Besides that there are small nuclear,micro RNAs, small interfering and heterogeneous RNAs. This is called the complementary base pairing rule or Chargaff's rule. Genetic Diversity – Definition, Importance, Examples Diversity refers to a lot of things. Note: The specific base pairing in DNA leads to the Chargaff Rule: In any sample of dsDNA, the amount of adenine equals the amount of thymine, the amount of guanine equals the amount of cytosine, and the total amount of purines equals the total amount of pyrimidines. Base pairing specificity quiz questions and answers pdf: According to Chargaff's rules, with answers for MCAT classes online. 2011-03-04 04:16:14 2011-03-04 04:16:14. 3 to 5 strand of DNA generally acts a template for the synthesis of. Hydrogen bonds between these bases allow the double helical DNA structure to form. Multiple Choice- Which concept is part of Chargaff's rules? 1 Adenine must bind to thymine and uracil to guanine. Multiple choice questions based on DNA COMPOSITION by Prof Kukreja Girish P #neet #cet #molbio #DNA #MCQ #NET #LIFECSCIENCES #MICROBIOLOGY MCQ I Molecular Biology I DNA I chargaffs rule Micro. Pharm and PhD (Pharma) Admission Notice: M. Thus the covalent backbones of nucleic acids consist of alternating phosphate and pentose residues, and the nitrogenous bases may be regarded. Study MCQ Nucleotides & NA flashcards from Kathy Tran's UTS class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. AC-NUC - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (. Eating Plan H (1 Meal) 1 cup New England clam chowder. neutral and open-ended. e A = T (120) and G = C (120), therefore, the total no. This set of Molecular Biology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on "Chemical Structures of Nucleic Acids". DNA coils tightly around proteins called _____ to form chromatin. Download CBSE Class 12 Biology Molecular Basis of Inheritance MCQs Set A in pdf, Biology chapter wise Multiple Choice Questions free, Q. Paper - II , Unit - I 2. Microbes are the major components of biological systems on the earth. C) Heterochromatin is the most highly condensed form of chromatin. Aesthetics refers to the rules of how the system will be navigated, including the 3 clicks rule b. When word spread that Watson and Crick had solved the structure, Chargaff wrote to Maurice Wilkins, who worked with Rosalind Franklin at. Enviado por. 1 2-ounce cheesy biscuit. This set of Molecular Biology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on "Chemical Structures of Nucleic Acids". Milian - Instructor 3 The genome is the sum total of genetic material of a cell. Alternating phosphates and sugar molecules. Between 1 Mb and 100 kb c WC decreased to a value of 0. Chargaff 's rule states that in an organism [CBSE AIPMT 2003] (1) amount of adenine (1) is equal to that of cytosine (3) and the amount of thymine (T) is equal to that of guanine (G) (2) amounts of all bases are equal (3) amount of adenine (1) is equal to that of thymine (T) and the amount of guanine (G) is equal to that of cytosine (3). Biotechnology Mock Test which questions will be asked in the exam. Nucleic acid structure Page: 278 Difficulty: 1 Ans: A Based on Chargaff's rules, which of the following are possible base compositions for double-stranded DNA? %A %G %C %T %U A) 5 45 45 5 0 B) 20 20 20 20 20 C) 35 15 35 15 0 D) all of the above E) none of the above. _____ _____ With the information gleaned from Wilkins lab and Chargaff's rule, Watson and Crick began building models. Calculate using chargaff's rule A 5 15. Dna structure quiz questions and answers pdf: "Considering Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) structure, backbone outside double helix is made up of" with answers for online certifications. As a general rule, your interview questions should be a. Students should be able to discover patterns in the pairing of bases and be able to draw. In the early stage of gingivitis, bacteria in plaque buildup causes the gums to become inflamed (red and swollen) and often easily bleed during tooth brushing. In case of double stranded DNA, Purine=Pyrimidine. D) A + T = G + C. it is a double stranded circular DNA; b. conjugation 2. In DNA, there are four nitrogenous bases: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C) and guanine (G). Multiple Choice- Which concept is part of Chargaff's rules? 1 Adenine must bind to thymine and uracil to guanine. In some viruses, DNA is synthesised by using RNA as template. Chargaff's rules state that _____. KEY SCIENTISTS INVOLVED 5. Search this site. Calculate the amount of calories present in each food items. Dna & genetics. Name the pyrimidine, present in DNA, but not in RNA 23. This quiz/worksheet combo will help you to learn about DNA and the rules for pairing complementary nucleotides. NEET - Biology Molecular Basis of Inheritance prepare. Chargaff's rule is correctly exemplified by. Uracil is found only in RNA and thymine only in DNA; The nitrogen and carbon atoms are numbered 1 - 6; These are linked to sugars via a n-glycosidic bond; The 1' carbon of the pentose is bonded to the 6 nitrogen of the base; Base pairings; Chargaff's rule states that purines always pairs with pyrimidines (equal amounts) Thymine - Adenine; 2. c) In double-stranded DNA, the amount of T equals the amount of C. Play this game to review Genetics. Dehydrated DNA takes an A form that protects the DNA during extreme condition such as desiccation. pdf), Text File (. Each base can only bond with one other, A with T and C with G. This 2010, the Med Boards is scheduled on August 7,8, 14 and Application of Chargaff’s rules. Read the different components from I to IV in the. Plz mark as BRAINLIEST. the amount of purine=the amount of pyramidine in a given DNA molecule. He observed that in all the species he studied DNA had equal numbers of adenine and thymine residues (A = T) and equal numbers of guanine and cytosine residues (G = C). _____ _____ With the information gleaned from Wilkins lab and Chargaff's rule, Watson and Crick began building models. The Physical Structure of DNA: The Double Helix: From 1940 to 1953, many scientists were interested in unraveling the structure of DNA molecule. These ncert exemplar solutions are arranged subject-wise and topic-wise. Chargaff 4. β- galactosidase - produces by z-gene 2. SHIMLA CENTRE: Nr. Chargaff's rule (In Hindi) 10m 38s. Paper - II , Unit - I 2. These Mcqs are helpful for Medical students. Description: Model Mcq for AIPMT,Board exams and various other medical entrance examination: the sequence of RNA strand which is complimentary with the DNA will be GUAUUCGUACUACUG as per Chargaff base pair rule. A) Uracil is present in RNA at the place of thymine. (The significance of directionality will be important when we explore how DNA copies itself. Chargaff's rule eventually led to the base pairing rule which states that _____ _____ 19. A DNA is a polymer which is composed by the combination of several monomer units refers as "Deoxyribo nucleotides" linked by the phosphodiester bond. Site title of www. Principle of western blotting, Griffith's experiment, role if electroporation techniques, hairpin structure of dna, types if cell use in liposomes,or mcqs ppts sea àhey. Which one of the following is not applicable to RNA? (a) Heterocyclic nitrogenous bases (b) Chargaff’s rule (c) Complementary base pairing (d) 5. GPAT 2013 Notification Exam Date Online Application Form. "According to Chargaff's rules" Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) on nucleic acid structure and function with choices purines = purines, pyrimidines = pyrimidines, t = c, and pyrimidine = purines for job placement test. MICROBIOLOGY ENTRANCE EXAM PREPARATION, TU, 2012 (SUBJECT: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY/GENETICS). In DNA, there are four nitrogenous bases: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C) and guanine (G). Foundations | DNA Base Pairs, and Erwin Chargaff Click for larger version (32K) Erwin Chargaff's groundbreaking research, which showed that DNA base pairs had a complementary relationship, laid the foundation for James Watson's and Francis Crick's DNA model. 2 remaining is GC i. RNA, on the other hand, can have some errors and there will not be any lasting damages to the cell. In RNA, there are not two nucleotide chains. β- galactosidase - produces by z-gene 2. Chargaff rule is applicable in double stranded DNA only. Anatomy The most common mistake of medical graduates with regards. Exam 2015, questions and answers - question bank for professor amro chapter 3-4 Exam 2015, questions and answers - question bank for professor amro chapter 5-6 Exam 2015, questions and answers - question bank for professor amro chapter 9-10 Exam 2015, questions and answers - question bank for professor amro chapter 11-12 BIOL 239 Exam Review - Summary Genetics BIOL 239 Exam Summary Review. Crick to the structure of DNA. A presentation on DNA -the code of life. See more ideas about Biology, Teaching biology, Biology notes. _____ _____ With the information gleaned from Wilkins lab and Chargaff's rule, Watson and Crick began building models. *this content is the sole property of Agrihelper. Watson and Crick proposed a model of DNA structure on the basis of Chargaff’s rule and work of Rosalind Franklin in 1953. As adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine with cytosine the % of adenine will be equal to the % of thymine, and the % of guanine equals the % of cytosine in a double-stranded DNA. 2011-03-04 04:16:14 2011-03-04 04:16:14. BODMAS rule in mathematics illustrates the order in which simple arithmetic problems should be solved. ; Steps in Translation: Gene expression is the mechanism at the molecular level by which a gene is able to express itself in the phenotype of an organism. By profession, he was an Austro-Hungarian biochemist, who colonized in the U. Solutions Worksheet - Free download as Word Doc (. done clear. The bond that connects adjacent nucleotide labelled 8 is peptide bond phosphodiester bond hydrogen bond glycosidic bond 5. pentoses d. What is a string of nucleotides called? a. The second of Chargaff's rules (or "Chargaff's second parity rule") is that the composition of DNA varies from one species to another; in particular in the relative amounts of A, G, T, and C bases. Archimedes may have seen it operating there four centuries years later, when Egypt was under Greek rule. o 1950 Erwin Chargaff [ A] always bonds with[ T] and [ C] bonds with [G] o 1962 : James Watson and Francis Crick discovered the DNA model was a double helix o Adenine and thymine are complementary. Which of the following base pairing rule is true: a) Adenine pairs with Guanine and Thymine pairs with Cytosine. This discovery became part of what was soon known as "Chargaff's rules. some multiple choice questions, and which has been attempted by some students. Diversity in antibody molecules is brought about by (A) Post-translational modifications (B) Gene rearrangements (C) Usage of special genetic codes (D) Multiple mutations in the polypeptide. Full text of "[ MN Chatterjea] Textbook Of Medical Biochemistry ( 8th Ed. A -T and G-C. txt) or view presentation slides online. The best thing about the movie is Thanos. According to Chargaff’s rule, in a DNA molecule a) The amount of adenine and thymine is equal to the amount of guanine and cytosine b) The amount of adenine and guanine is equal to the amount of thymine and cytosine. Final Term past papers of Bio 201 301 202 302. Le-Chatelier's. Considering the Chargaff’s rule it can be concluded that: a. Chargaff's rules state that DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 1:1 ratio of pyrimidine and purine bases and, more specifically, that the amount of guanine is equal to cytosine and the amount of adenine is equal to thymine. Which of the following is correct according to Chargaff's rules? a) A+C=G+T b) A+T=G+C c) A+T=T+C d) All the above are correct this is just waste of time. com - GATE Study Material, Forum, downloads, discussions & more! GATE PY - 2005 Q. in do not try to reproduce without prior permission. Biochemistry Mcqs for preparation. Play this game to review Genetics. Which of the following statements is true for fructose?. of nucleotides would be 120 x 4 = 480. 👍 Correct answer to the question: 6. Let us help you simplify your studying. Such a DNA is called: a. Gkseries provide you the detailed solutions for class 12 Biology from NCERT or CBSE text book as per exam pattern, to help you in day to day learning. 8527521718; [email protected] That is, you look similar to her. Record your answer in the space provided. 3 Pyrimidines. In DNA and RNA, these nucleotides contain four nucleobases — sometimes called nitrogenous bases or simply bases — two purine and pyrimidine bases each. Office 9882111655 & 8091779119. Electroporation technique 5 no. Use your base 3 points pairing information to calculate how man hydrogen bonds in apiece of DNA that has 600 nucleotide, 50 % of which are A=T* O 1200 O 1500 O 900 O 600 Which of the following is a polymer of glucose linked with protein that make theexoskeleton 3 points of some invertebrate Like Lobster * O Cellulous Starch O Glycogen O Chitin A pregnant woman in her last trimester is. The chapter covers important topics such as DNA, RNA, the process of replication etc. James Watson d. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 6 - Molecular Basis of Inheritance is categorized under the Unit - Genetics and Evolution. Winner of the Standing Ovation Award for "Best PowerPoint Templates" from Presentations Magazine. Advertisements save a lot of time and trouble by putting sellers in touch with buyers in a quick and simple way. Allow students to find a partner to work with to complete the activity. 85 Please give explanations with your answers. By profession, he was an Austro-Hungarian biochemist, who colonized in the U. Before reaching the section of the notes in which Chargaff's Base Pairing rules are presented, distribute the student handouts of Chargaff's DNA Data worksheet. It is possible he greatly improved the water screw, making it the user-friendly, geared device we know today that can be turned by one person rather than one. Austro-Hungarian biochemist Erwin Chargaff discovers that concentrations of thymine and adenine, and cytosine and guanine, are always found in equal amounts in samples of DNA. When word spread that Watson and Crick had solved the structure, Chargaff wrote to Maurice Wilkins, who worked with Rosalind Franklin at. All the cells of an oeganism or a tissue have identical or closely similar base composition b. Over the years after Mendel, the nature of the genetic material was investigated, resulting in the realisation that DNA is the genetic material in majority of organisms. Chargaff's rule (the equivalence rule): He found out that in DNA, the concentration of adenine always equalled the concentration of thymine and the concentration of guanine always equalled the concentration of cytosine ie. Questions Option A Option B Option C Option D Ans Boric acid is a weak acid (pKa 9. (g) Ten base pairs occur per turn of helix (abbreviated 10bp). Correct Answer: Chargaff’s rule. Erwin Chargaff b. First Chargaff's rule (or first parity rule) holds that in double-stranded DNA molecule observed percentage base pair equality: %A = %T and %G = %C. What is meant by Nicking of DNA? (2 marks) 2. According to Chargaff’s rule, a r-standed DNA molecule contains an equal ratio of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine). Play this game to review Genetics. Allow students to find a partner to work with to complete the activity. As a general rule, your interview questions should be a. what is chargaff rule ? differentiate between pyrimidines and purines ? enlist requirement for polymerases ?. BIO201- Cell Biology Spring 2016 Current Final Term Papers at One Place From August 20 to 31 August ,2016. Multiple Choice- Which concept is part of Chargaff’s rules? 1 Adenine must bind to thymine and uracil to guanine. the amount of adenine equals the amount of thymine in DNA b. Genetics with answers Q1) Choose the best answer for Genetics with answers Q1) Choose the best answer for the following questions: B Complete DNA replication C DNA not damage or broken D All of the above 12 Those cancers that derived from ectoderm or endoderm of epithelial cell are called A. 6 questions. Which one of the following is not applicable to RNA? (a) Heterocyclic nitrogenous bases (b) Chargaff’s rule (c) Complementary base pairing (d) 5. According to Chargaff’s rule, in a DNA molecule a) The amount of adenine and thymine is equal to the amount of guanine and cytosine b) The amount of adenine and guanine is equal to the amount of thymine and cytosine. Milian - Instructor 3 The genome is the sum total of genetic material of a cell. See more ideas about Biology, Teaching biology, Biology notes. Describe the two discoveries of Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin that led James Watson and Francis. during the Nazi era. Chargaff's Rule of DNA Composition: Erwin Chargaff in late 1940s quantitatively analysed the DNA hydro lysates from different species. 1 to 30 Carry One Mark Each. It means that the number of adenine molecules is equal to thymine molecules and the number of guanine molecules is equal to cytosine molecules. pdf), Text File (. 40 Functions of nucleic acid The main functions is to store and transfer genetic information. A Seminar Report on DNA -the code of life. When word spread that Watson and Crick had solved the structure, Chargaff wrote to Maurice Wilkins, who worked with Rosalind Franklin at. only protein. Transcriptionally inactive. What are Chargaff's rules? Nucleic Acids: Nucleic acids are large biopolymers that are made up of repeating monomers called nucleotides. The successive nucleotides of both DNA and RNA are covalently linked through phosphate-group "bridges," in which the 5-phosphate group of one nucleotide unit is joined to the 3-hydroxyl group of the next nucleotide, creating a phosphodiester linkage. Which of the following is correct according to Chargaff's rules? a) A+C=G+T b) A+T=G+C c) A+T=T+C d) All the above are correct this is just waste of time. Winner of the Standing Ovation Award for "Best PowerPoint Templates" from Presentations Magazine. AC-NUC - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (. 032 seconds. They were Erwin Chargaff, Maurice Wilkins, Rosalind Franklin, Linus Pauling, Francis Crick and […]. 1 Explanations NEET AIPMT Biology Chapter Wise SolutionsPhysicsChemistry 1. Note: The specific base pairing in DNA leads to the Chargaff Rule: In any sample of dsDNA, the amount of adenine equals the amount of thymine, the amount of guanine equals the amount of cytosine, and the total amount of purines equals the total amount of pyrimidines. Now you can recall that later because we are going to learn here something more about DNA. Describe the components and structure of a DNA nucleotide. Translation is the synthesis of a polypeptide chain where a particular nucleotide sequence on m-RNA is translated into a particular amino acid. 1 — 30 Carry One Mark Each. c) In double-stranded DNA, the amount of T equals the amount of C. Besides that there are small nuclear,micro RNAs, small interfering and heterogeneous RNAs. In DNA, there are four nitrogenous base options: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C) and guanine (G). Usage level refers to programming multiple versions of a system for different users d. DNA is composed of repeating units of (a) ribonucleosides (b) deoxyribonucleosides. Chargaff rule is applicable in double stranded DNA only. B) The complex of DNA and protein in chromosome is called chromatin. In a DNA strand the nucleotides are linked together by (a) Glycosidic bonds (b) Phosphodiester bonds (c) Peptide bonds (d) Hydrogen bonds Answer. While analysing the DNA of an organism a total number of 5386 nucleotides were found out of which the proportion of different bases were: Adenine = 29%, Guanine = 17%, Cytosine = 32%, Thymine = 17%. RNA- A polymer of ribonucleotides, is a single stranded structure. The successive nucleotides of both DNA and RNA are covalently linked through phosphate-group "bridges," in which the 5-phosphate group of one nucleotide unit is joined to the 3-hydroxyl group of the next nucleotide, creating a phosphodiester linkage. They both require 2 hydrogen bonds. DNA is a type of nucleic acid with nucleotides that contain. the device could have reached Egypt, which was under Assyrian rule in 680 BC. txt) or view presentation slides online. Racaniello, Glenn F. Economics MCQ Economics Strong rule-of-law countries grow more rapidly than weak rule-of-law countries. Pharm and PhD (Pharma) Admission Notice: M. Describe Chargaff’s Rules? DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 1:1 ratio (base pair rule) of pyrimidine and purine bases and, more specifically, that the amount of guanine is equal to cytosine and the amount of adenine is equal to thymine. No conclusion can be drawn 21. Gingivitis (gum inflammation) usually precedes periodontitis (gum disease). It means that the number of adenine molecules is equal to thymine molecules and the number of guanine molecules is equal to cytosine molecules. Prepare for competitive exams. We provide all important questions in JNU M. the device could have reached Egypt, which was under Assyrian rule in 680 BC. Chargaff's rule discussed in detail MCQ on Proteins solved (In hindi) 11:51 mins. - eanswers. Decide which type of point mutation typically leads to non-functional proteins. The Physical Structure of DNA 2. Chargaff’s rule is a straightforward consequence of two things: G pairs with C, A pairs with T EXCLUSIVELY in DNA Genomic DNA is essentially exclusively double stranded, so there would be no regions with exceptions in it (not looking at you, telomeres). Answer According to Chargaff's rule, the DNA molecule should have an equal ratio of pyrimidine (cytosine and thymine) and purine (adenine and guanine). Watson and Crick proposed that if there is specific base pairing of the bases then there must be a way of replication of the genetic information. Le-Chatelier's. Chargaff’s rule of base equivalence. HOPE IT'S HELPFUL. It is a simple matter to convert the computer output to a Likert-style scale of 1-5, where 1 = Strongly Disagree, 3 = Neutral/Don't Know, 5 = Strongly Agree. RNA- A polymer of ribonucleotides, is a single stranded structure. Nucleic acid structure Ans: E In the Watson-Crick model of DNA structure (now called B-form DNA): A) a purine in one strand always hydrogen bonds with a purine in the other strand. Which is the first step of DNA replication? a. How did Chargaff's rule support Watson and Crick's double helix model of DNA? Top Answer. Tm Nucleoprotein 39 Objectives. B) The complex of DNA and protein in chromosome is called chromatin. Such a DNA is called: a. The Physical Structure of DNA: The Double Helix: From 1940 to 1953, many scientists were interested in unraveling the structure of DNA molecule. Given that the DNA of a certain fly species consists of 27. Which sequence of DNA bases would pair with this partiaal strand ATG TGA CAG. mRNA carries the genetic code to translated into protein ____ 7. Chargaff's rules state that DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 1:1 ratio of pyrimidine and purine bases and, more specifically, that the amount of guanine is equal to cytosine and the amount of adenine is equal to thymine. it is a double stranded circular DNA; b. In Griffith's experiments, a harmless variant of S. The two chains are coiled in a right –handed fashion. James Watson B. Microbes in Human Welfare- CBSE Notes for Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions Maths Physics Chemistry Biology Science Microbes in Household Products, Industrial Products and in Sewage Treatment: 1. Our videos prepare you to succeed in your college classes. This is called the complementary base pairing rule or Chargaff's rule. parallel c. the amount of purine=the amount of pyramidine in a given DNA molecule. In a tabulated form, prepare a balanced diet chart menu for breakfast, lunch and dinner for yourself. Learn faster with spaced repetition. As a general rule, your interview questions should be a. Use your base 3 points pairing information to calculate how man hydrogen bonds in apiece of DNA that has 600 nucleotide, 50 % of which are A=T* O 1200 O 1500 O 900 O 600 Which of the following is a polymer of glucose linked with protein that make theexoskeleton 3 points of some invertebrate Like Lobster * O Cellulous Starch O Glycogen O Chitin A pregnant woman in her last trimester is. Two complete, identical strands of DNA pair up. Which one of the following is not applicable to RNA? (a) Heterocyclic nitrogenous bases (b) Chargaff’s rule (c) Complementary base pairing (d) 5. B) The complex of DNA and protein in chromosome is called chromatin. What is the role of DNA primase? 2. In some viruses, DNA is synthesised by using RNA as template. creates a short DNA primer that is complementary to the RNA template. Rosalind Franklin c. Which is the first step of DNA replication? a. transduction 3. There will be total 20 MCQ in this test. If you are having trouble with Chemistry, Organic, Physics, Calculus, or Statistics, we got your back! Our videos will help you understand concepts, solve your homework, and do great on your exams. Secondary cortex II. When word spread that Watson and Crick had solved the structure, Chargaff wrote to Maurice Wilkins, who worked with Rosalind Franklin at. By 1950 he had experimentally determined — and published — certain crucial facts that led directly to the correct elucidation of its molecular structure. GATE PY 2005 Pharmacy Question Paper. AC-NUC - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (. RNA is a simple chain molecule and there is no necessary proportionality of nitrogen-containing bases to form it. Essays über Sprache und Wissenschaft. DNA is an essential and complex molecule. In particular, he demonstrated three rules, now known as Chargaff’s Rules, which state that in DNA:. Exam 2015, questions and answers - question bank for professor amro chapter 3-4 Exam 2015, questions and answers - question bank for professor amro chapter 5-6 Exam 2015, questions and answers - question bank for professor amro chapter 9-10 Exam 2015, questions and answers - question bank for professor amro chapter 11-12 BIOL 239 Exam Review - Summary Genetics BIOL 239 Exam Summary Review. What is a string of nucleotides called? a. DNA is a double helix c. World ranking 846219 altough the site value is $2 544. Why the nucleotide ratio in RNA is not usually constant? 20. protein binding also removes the solvent from DNA and the DNA takes an A form. Diversity in antibody molecules is brought about by (A) Post-translational modifications (B) Gene rearrangements (C) Usage of special genetic codes (D) Multiple mutations in the polypeptide. Two important findings from this work are often called Chargaff's rules:. Austro-Hungarian biochemist Erwin Chargaff discovers that concentrations of thymine and adenine, and cytosine and guanine, are always found in equal amounts in samples of DNA. DNA is a type of nucleic acid with nucleotides that contain. INTRODUCTION: Molecular biology began more than 40 years ago with Watson and Crick‘s discovery of the double helix structure of deoxyribonucleic acid DNA and that continued with Cohen and Boyer’s. ppt), PDF File (. Besides that there are small nuclear,micro RNAs, small interfering and heterogeneous RNAs. BIOMOLECULES - Course Overview (In Hindi) 7:59 mins. As scientists tried to discover the nature of genes, what three critical gene functions had they identified? 12. Mixing of semisolids is carried out using (A) double cone mixer (B) rotating cube mixer. Define double helix?. 👍 Correct answer to the question: 6. The two chains are coiled in a right –handed fashion. Each base can only bond with one other, A with T and C with G. 1 2-ounce cheesy biscuit. (A) Chargaffs rules (B) Hershey-Chase experiment (C) A very MacLeod œ McCarty experiment (D) Nirenberg and Khorana's codon assignments. World ranking 846219 altough the site value is $2 544. Base Pairing Specificity Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs), base pairing specificity quiz answers pdf to practice medical college admission test questions. The number of purines in a segment of DNA molecule is 68. What is meant by the term base pairing? How is base. Chargaff's Rules: A=T, G=C: Term. DNA is an essential and complex molecule. While there is a multitude of light rays being captured and refracted by a lens, only two rays are needed in order to determine the image location. In a given sample of DNA, the total amount of purines = total amount of pyrimidines. 1 to 30 Carry One Mark Each. Started by [email protected] Khan M. Because the DNA is single-stranded the Chargaff's rule doesn't apply and there's no way to know. Question: Multiple Choice Questions Chargaff's Rules For DNA Basepairing Indicates That 1. Chromosome: It is a packed and organised structure containing most of the DNA of a living organism. Medical Microbio - TB - 32 cards; 09. Human Resource Management Multiple Choice Questions and Answers (MCQs) is a revision guide with a collection of trivia quiz questions and answers on topics: benefits and services, coaching, careers and talent management, employee testing and selection, establishing strategic pay plans, ethics justice and fair treatment, human resource planning. Francis Crick along with James Watson both combined Rosalind Franklin's data and Chargaff's rules and an examination of molecular models to discover the molecular structure of DNA. In RNA, there are not two nucleotide chains. Chargaff's Rule For a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), the ratio between Adenine and Thymine, and Guanine and Cytosine are constant and are equal to one. We provide all important questions in JNU M. Hotel Ashirwad, Auckland Tunnel, Lakkar Bazar, Shimla. b) Single-stranded RNA molecules contain the same amount of A and U. Which of the following base pairing rule is true: a) Adenine pairs with Guanine and Thymine pairs with Cytosine. In RNA, there are not two nucleotide chains. MCQs on DNA- Part 1 (In Hindi) 11m 32s. When DNA is double stranded the amount of adenine is always equal to the amount of thymine, and the. Multiple choice questions based on DNA COMPOSITION by Prof Kukreja Girish P #neet #cet #molbio #DNA #MCQ #NET #LIFECSCIENCES #MICROBIOLOGY MCQ I Molecular Biology I DNA I chargaffs rule Micro. Chargaff's rule (the amount of adenine in DNA equals the amount of thymine, and so forth) was the key to understanding _____. of nucleotides would be 120 x 4 = 480. Test # 01 Molecular Basis of Inheritance: MCQs Quiz - 1. Chargaff's rule (In Hindi) Lesson 25 of 61 • 20 upvotes • 10:38 mins. It is based on the principle of immunochromatography where proteins are separated into polyacrylamide gel according to their molecular weight. pneumoniae became pathogenic when mixed with a heat-killed pathogenic variant as a result of _____. (g) Ten base pairs occur per turn of helix (abbreviated 10bp). Test out what more you know about the structure and function of DNA through this test!. Solutions Worksheet - Free download as Word Doc (. Chargaff's rule is correctly exemplified by. Answer: b According to Chargaff's rule, in a DNA molecule a) The amount of adenine and thymine is equal to the amount of guanine and cytosine. They will be most helpful if you solve them on your own. Chargaff's rule (the equivalence rule): He found out that in DNA, the concentration of adenine always equalled the concentration of thymine and the concentration of guanine always equalled the concentration of cytosine ie. Austro-Hungarian biochemist Erwin Chargaff discovers that concentrations of thymine and adenine, and cytosine and guanine, are always found in equal amounts in samples of DNA. Paper - II , Unit - I 2. Which of the following statements about Chargaffs rule 7. The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4. Medical Microbio - Nisseria - 22 cards; 1-1 What is. FROM PAGE 300 4. Erwin Chargaff (1,579 words) exact match in snippet view article find links to article Essay. According to Chargaff's rule, the DNA molecule should have an equal ratio of pyrimidine (cytosine and thymine) and purine (adenine and guanine). Multiple choice questions based on DNA COMPOSITION by Prof Kukreja Girish P #neet #cet #molbio #DNA #MCQ #NET #LIFECSCIENCES #MICROBIOLOGY MCQ I Molecular Biology I DNA I chargaffs rule Micro. Describe Chargaff's Rules? DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 1:1 ratio (base pair rule) of pyrimidine and purine bases and, more specifically, that the amount of guanine is equal to cytosine and the amount of adenine is equal to thymine. Two complete, identical strands of DNA pair up. DNA Helical structure, properties and function - Part 2 (In Hindi) 33. It means that the number of adenine molecules is equal to thymine molecules and the number of guanine molecules is equal to cytosine molecules. A = U and G = C in any molecule of RNA e. 5% guanine, use Chargaff's. They'll give your presentations a professional, memorable appearance - the kind of sophisticated look that today's audiences expect. Densely packed. Number of hydrogen bonds between adenine and thymine? a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 View Answer. Test # 01 Molecular Basis of Inheritance: MCQs Quiz - 1. The newly pro­duced viral DNA and viral proteins combine in the as­sembly of new, complete virus particles that are released upon lysis of the host cell. A DNA is a polymer which is composed by the combination of several monomer units refers as "Deoxyribo nucleotides" linked by the phosphodiester bond. Multiple choice questions based on DNA COMPOSITION by Prof Kukreja Girish P #neet #cet #molbio #DNA #MCQ #NET #LIFECSCIENCES #MICROBIOLOGY MCQ I Molecular Biology I DNA I chargaffs rule Micro. This pattern is found in both strands of the DNA. (A) Chargaffs rules (B) Hershey-Chase experiment (C) A very MacLeod œ McCarty experiment (D) Nirenberg and Khorana‘s codon assignments. Chargaff's rules state that DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 1:1 ratio of pyrimidine and purine bases and, more specifically, that the amount of guanine is equal to cytosine and the amount of adenine is equal to thymine. )" See other formats. pdf), Text File (. Furthermore, in this, we will discuss what is Chargaff's rule. Pyrimidines. Watson-Crick base pairing is of very great importance as it is a deciding factor in DNA Replication. Molecular Basis of Inheritance. [D2] In species X, the (C+G) content is 4 times higher than the (A+T) content , whereas in Species Y, both such contents are about the same. b) Single-stranded RNA molecules contain the same amount of A and U. Chargaff 's rule states that in an organism [CBSE AIPMT 2003] (1) amount of adenine (1) is equal to that of cytosine (3) and the amount of thymine (T) is equal to that of guanine (G) (2) amounts of all bases are equal (3) amount of adenine (1) is equal to that of thymine (T) and the amount of guanine (G) is equal to that of cytosine (3). Multiple Choice- Which concept is part of Chargaff’s rules? 1 Adenine must bind to thymine and uracil to guanine. This suggests that A always pairs with T and C always pairs with G in a proportion that would later become known as Chargaff's ratio, an important clue for solving the. Frederick Griffith was a British bacteriologist (a scientist who studies bacteria), who lived from 1879 to 1941. Bacterial Transformation. These bt301 Mid Term Past Papers are shared by VU students. In the discovery of DNA, many scientists have explicated the structure of DNA, its components and composition etc. Study MCQ Nucleotides & NA flashcards from Kathy Tran's UTS class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. com)rev&pat&gen&gar&gup&8th - Copy [6nq990v36qlw]. MCQs on DNA- Part 1 (In Hindi) 11m 32s. Let us help you simplify your studying. If the Carr’s index of a power is 1O% then the type of powder flow is (A) poor (B) excellent (C) very poor (D)good 2. In RNA, there are not two nucleotide chains. What is restortranspons? (2) 3. Molecular Basis of Inheritance - CBSE Notes for Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions Maths Physics Chemistry Biology Science The DNA and RNA World: 1. B-form DNA: Definition. Typically; bacteriophages consist of an outer protein capsid, enclosing genetic material. The elongation of the leading strand during DNA synthesis A) progresses away from the replication fork. Pharm and PhD (Pharma). E) A + G = T + C. 3 to 5 strand of DNA generally acts a template for the synthesis of. Properties of DNA. Final Term past papers of Bio 201 301 202 302. askIITians 2016-06-24 Master the structure of DNA by reading this! 2016-06-24T14:53:58+00:00 No Comment Once in a life time, everyone must have heard the term DNA. Learn faster with spaced repetition. Watson and Crick proposed that if there is specific base pairing of the bases then there must be a way of replication of the genetic information. Explain chargaff rule ?? Explain restriction modification?? Northern blotting?? My today paper of BT301 Total Q 26 (40 marks) 20 MCQS 4 Short Q and 2 long Q Short Q: 1. Biology Flashcards. Chargaff’s rule (the equivalence rule): He found out that in DNA, the concentration of adenine always equalled the concentration of thymine and the concentration of guanine always equalled the concentration of cytosine ie. phil Education. Chargaff's rules state that in typical DNA: A) A = G. In RNA, there are not two nucleotide chains. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies a monochromator can be used to further decrease the spread of wavelengths in the X-ray tensity Wavelength ( ) 0. Answer According to Chargaff's rule, the DNA molecule should have an equal ratio of pyrimidine (cytosine and thymine) and purine (adenine and guanine). Crick to the structure of DNA. ppt), PDF File (. If you are having trouble with Chemistry, Organic, Physics, Calculus, or Statistics, we got your back! Our videos will help you understand concepts, solve your homework, and do great on your exams. Medical Microbio - TB - 32 cards; 09. Which of the following statements is not true according to chargaff's rule a. The most important source of reducing equivalents for fatty acid synthesis in the liver is - 1) Uronic acid pathway : 2) HMP pathway : 3) Chargaff rule state that-. MCQs on DNA- Part 2 (in Hindi. The deoxyribonucleic acid is the storage place for. deoxyribose is the sugar in DNA d. It is a double stranded linear DNA d. While trying to find a cure for pneumonia, Griffith made a major scientific discovery. Chargaff's rules state that DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 1:1 ratio of pyrimidine and purine bases and, more specifically, that the amount of guanine is equal to cytosine and the amount of adenine is equal to thymine. Based on Chargaff's rules, which of the following are possible base compositions for double-stranded DNA? %A %G %C %T %U A) 5 45 45 5 0 B) 20 20 20 20 20 C) 35 15 35 15 0 D) All of the above E) None of the above. 032 seconds. mRNA carries the genetic code to translated into protein ____ 7. In a tabulated form, prepare a balanced diet chart menu for breakfast, lunch and dinner for yourself. By profession, he was an Austro-Hungarian biochemist, who colonized in the U. All of these answers are correct. Watson Crick model 8. Exam 2015, questions and answers - question bank for professor amro chapter 3-4 Exam 2015, questions and answers - question bank for professor amro chapter 5-6 Exam 2015, questions and answers - question bank for professor amro chapter 9-10 Exam 2015, questions and answers - question bank for professor amro chapter 11-12 BIOL 239 Exam Review - Summary Genetics BIOL 239 Exam Summary Review. To see this original description, consult the manuscripts librarian. Which of the following statements is true for fructose?. biology chapter 12. They were discovered by Austrian chemist Erwin Chargaff. bt301 midterm past papers 2018 will help you good understand and how to attemp midterm exam in VU. Mixing of semisolids is carried out using (A) double cone mixer (B) rotating cube mixer (C) planetary mixer (D) fluidized bed mixer. Levi 9786610612215 6610612218 Nanoscale Transistors - Device Physics, Modeling and Simulation, Jing Guo, Mark Lundstrom 9786610443291 6610443297 Children Talk about the Mind, Bartsch Karen, M Wellman Henry 9786610314461 6610314462 The Price of a Gift - A Lakota Healer's Story, Gerald Mohatt. Francis Crick along with James Watson both combined Rosalind Franklin's data and Chargaff's rules and an examination of molecular models to discover the molecular structure of DNA. NEET AIPMT Biology Chapter Wise Solutions – Molecular Basis of InheritanceContents1 NEET AIPMT Biology Chapter Wise Solutions – Molecular Basis of Inheritance1. ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about DNA:- 1. Chargaff compared the amounts of these bases in everything from bacteria to humans. chapter 16 ap biology Flashcards. 3 Replies 1 Like. A nucleoside. Francis Crick along with James Watson both combined Rosalind Franklin's data and Chargaff's rules and an examination of molecular models to discover the molecular structure of DNA. Watson and Crick proposed that if there is specific base pairing of the bases then there must be a way of replication of the genetic information. Calculate using chargaff's rule A 5 15. e A = T (120) and G = C (120), therefore, the total no. (mebooksfree. None of the statements 7. MCQs on DNA- Part 1 (In Hindi) 11m 32s. A C and G T B. In Griffith's experiments, a harmless variant of S. Play this game to review Genetics. MICROBIOLOGY ENTRANCE EXAM PREPARATION, TU, 2012 the base pair rule. This means you're free to copy, share and adapt any parts (or all) of the text in the article, as long as you give appropriate credit and provide a link/reference to this page. Create a graphic organizer that summarizes the 3 main types of point mutations (silent, missense, and nonsense). (A) Chargaffs rules (B) Hershey-Chase experiment (C) A very MacLeod œ McCarty experiment (D) Nirenberg and Khorana‘s codon assignments. 1 Explanations NEET AIPMT Biology Chapter Wise SolutionsPhysicsChemistry 1. transduction 3. (A) Chargaffs rules (B) Hershey-Chase experiment (C) A very MacLeod œ McCarty experiment (D) Nirenberg and Khorana's codon assignments. 4A between each base pair 10. According to Chargaff's rule, the DNA molecule should have an equal ratio of pyrimidine (cytosine and thymine) and purine (adenine and guanine). Crick to the structure of DNA. The following problems are provided to develop your skill and test your understanding of solving problems in the patterns of inheritance. com is Biology Multiple Choice Questions and Answers for Different Competitive Exams. Search this site. Site title of www. This forum is to discuss all those nagging questions which seem to defy your talent and refuse to produce any evidence of their existence in the standard textbooks. A = T and G = C in any molecule of DNA b. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic acid (RNA) are the two types. Last reply by [email protected] Khan M. the device could have reached Egypt, which was under Assyrian rule in 680 BC. Describe how base-pairing rules confirm Chargaff's observations about DNA composition. Notes, study material, practice question and answers, online tests,download pdf. Explain chargaff rule ?? Explain restriction modification?? Northern blotting?? My today paper of BT301 Total Q 26 (40 marks) 20 MCQS 4 Short Q and 2 long Q Short Q: 1. His goal of collecting six infinity stones and wiping out half the universe is the mission that we are most curious to see accomplished even if its break our hearts to see that happen that's how you know you have a great villain by the way like kill monger in black panther a part of us kind of wants to see. Chargaff’s Rules. Erwin Chargaff and his colleagues in the late 1940s, found that the four nucleotide bases of DNA occur in different ratios in the DNAs of different organisms and that the amounts of certain bases are closely related. Multiple Choice- Which concept is part of Chargaff’s rules? 1 Adenine must bind to thymine and uracil to guanine. They'll give your presentations a professional, memorable appearance - the kind of sophisticated look that today's audiences expect. Considering the Chargaff's rule it can be concluded that: a. secondary questions. Loosely Packed. Chargaff's rules is a two main rules of nucleotide distribution in DNA strings, discovered by Austrian chemist Erwin Chargaff in early 1950s in Columbia University. Foundations | DNA Base Pairs, and Erwin Chargaff Click for larger version (32K) Erwin Chargaff's groundbreaking research, which showed that DNA base pairs had a complementary relationship, laid the foundation for James Watson's and Francis Crick's DNA model. Electroporation technique 5 no. Biology F,Sc Part 2 Past Paper 15 Homeostasis Multiple Choice Questions The incidence of calcium phosphate stones in kidney: L10 A) 10% B) 15% Biology F. Advertisements save a lot of time and trouble by putting sellers in touch with buyers in a quick and simple way. Chargaff's rules played a very important role in establishing double-helix configurations for B-DNA as well as A-DNA. Gene: It is a segment of DNA that encodes for a protein. Study MCQ Nucleotides & NA flashcards from Kathy Tran's UTS class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. He observed that in all the species he studied DNA had equal numbers of adenine and thymine residues (A = T) and equal numbers of guanine and cytosine residues (G = C). What stood out was that for each species, the amount of adenine always equaled the amount of thymine. Properties of DNA. A = U and G = C in any molecule of RNA e. View Solution play_arrow; question_answer37) Find out the correct statement. Chargaffs Rule In 1950s, biochemist named Erwin Chargaff found that the amount of adenine in DNA always equals amount of thymine Also found that amount of guanine always equals amount of cytosine Chargaffs Rule helped scientists understand the structure of DNA Kahoot MCQ - Student Copy. FROM PAGE 298-299 2. conjugation 2. com is Biology Multiple Choice Questions and Answers for Different Competitive Exams. Click this to see the report. These ncert exemplar solutions are arranged subject-wise and topic-wise. For example, A+G/T+C=1 dsDNA. RNA does not follow the Chargaff's rule. Double stranded DNA behaves as a rigid rod like structure: Single stranded DNA behaves as a randomly coiled polymer: 9: Present in almost all organisms: Present in very few viruses such as φX 174: 10: Follows Chargaff's rule: Do not follows Chargaff's rule: 11: Purine by pyrimidine ratio will be 1: Purine by pyrimidine ratio varies greatly. Complementary base pairing is of fundamental importance in molecular genetics. Enviado por. Chargaff's rules state that in typical DNA: A) A = G. (A) Chargaffs rules (B) Hershey-Chase experiment (C) A very MacLeod œ McCarty experiment (D) Nirenberg and Khorana's codon assignments. Choose the exam specification that matches the one you study. 1 to 30 Carry One Mark Each. Explain chargaff rule ?? Explain restriction modification?? Northern blotting?? My today paper of BT301 Total Q 26 (40 marks) 20 MCQS 4 Short Q and 2 long Q Short Q: 1. The Most Important Chemical Compounds By Heather Brown We are living in a world filled with chemical compounds, some of them being the most important things we use on a regular basis. 2vc593mac7ddpsx k8csxy41xdbs 9xo4szwqxojyuu uesqfvguh1gik j58mlgm5ag jsnumhss24 d7wlu2ga60q4c e87wvtv3lhq r602efsk1ckjz9 1jkcojee681 831s4y8um0va7 fj2f2mps5ah n65gr3xxsft5aa pi33vtrdm7a4fc q2gvktf9xnu koezw9bw2r0lhbj 0glybbmp5tn u0y31iddgqxnq f3wosg99ma lotqzzoawex1s96 6t4mpbpjjb2n1ju yegcu1sc8l9wq e96dv0kpba uk3m6v1uxnrwdt pw0dss0jdo 4ktnb4y23h